The Dalton Plan
see also magazine
Inspired by the intellectual ferment at the turn of the last century,
educational thinkers such as John Dewey began to cast a bold vision of a new progressive American approach to education. Helen Parkhurst caught the spirit of change and created the Dalton Plan.
The ideas of Helen Parkhurst are even in our century a lasting inspiration for educators all over the world.
Under the Dalton Laboratory Plan we place the work problem squarely before him, indicating the standard which has to be attained. After that he is allowed to tackle it as he thinks fit in his own way and at his own speed. Responsibility for the result will develop not only his latent intellectual powers, but also his judgment and character.
What does a pupil do when given responsibility? Instinctively he seeks the best way of achieving it.
The Dalton Plan elicits a new response from the child’s nature by inviting him to undertake the job in a way that appeals to his natural desire to learn things in his own way and even in his own time.
He studies on his own responsibility in the company of his fellows, all persuing the same adventure. He forms the same kind of relationships in his school life that he will afterwards get in his business or professional life. He is learning by trying. Helen Parkhurst, Education on the Dalton Plan 1922
Helen Parkhurst based her plan on three starting points.
She mentions FREEDOM as the first principle and COOPERATION as a second one. (Education on the Dalton Plan, page 19)
A third element is the ASSIGNMENT .
That three-part plan continues to be the structural foundation of the Dalton education.
Without affecting the educational intention, the Dalton development in several countries shows a different practice of the three basic principles.
The Dalton School New York is using :
The House is home base in school for each Dalton student, and the House Advisor is parents’ key contact with the school. In the First Program and Middle School, House is comprised of students of the same age. In the High School, each House includes students from every grade level, a microcosm of the larger community. At all divisions the House Advisor guides and assists each student in the learning process.
The Assignment represents a contract between student and teacher.
Designed by each teacher for each class. The Assignment is a printed document that introduces the subject, makes suggestions for study and research, and defines common obligations as well as opportunities for individual projects. The Assignment provides the thematic focus for daily class and homework and may be individually tailored to meet specific needs and develop specific strengths.
The Laboratory best describes the educational atmosphere that Dalton stives to create which combines study, research and collaboration. “Lab” refers to the one to one and small group sessions between students and teachers which augment the traditional classroom instruction Lab is scheduled at specific times throughout the school day.
The Ascham School in Sydney / Australia is using more or less the same structure. Work is set in monthly assignments, divided into weekly units. A number of periods is allocated to class lessons and during the remaining periods, the teachers responsible for the academic subjects are available in their subject rooms for consultation (“LAB”) and the students are taught how to schedule the appropriate number of times a week to see teachers to discuss progress, get help or plan extension work. Once a week the whole work done by each student is reported to her Form teacher, and the ASSIGNMENT for each week is expected to be completed in each subject before the next week’s work is commenced.
The schools in Japan are in close contact with the Dalton school in New York.
Three schools for younger children have implemented the model from the First Program of New York.
The development in The Netherlands round 1930 was based on the same principles Helen Parkhurst used in the book Education on the Dalton Plan.
FREEDOM - COOPERATION - SELF-RELIANCE .
The first Dalton development started in secondary education, but short after the introduction some primary schools followed the ideas. Since 1985 the first Dalton K-12 schools were generated (Utrecht and Tilburg).
Hans Wenke, together with Roel Röhner author of five books about Dalton education, introduced RESPONSIBILITY as a standard instead of FREEDOM. Also Helen Parkhurst explained freedom as a development of responsibility.
In The Netherlands HOUSE is a common class arrangement. The classroom teacher is also the HOUSE advisor.
LAB one can find in the individual help and regular student - teacher (or small group - teacher) conversation. In many schools pupils from different ages help each other (tutor learning, mentor learning or learning with guiders). In primary education is LAB integrated in the HOUSE, in secondary eduaction in special Dalton (LAB) hours.
ASSIGNMENT is inherent to SELF-RELIANCE.
Training self-reliance is giving children as much responsibility as possible during their ASSIGNMENT work. Primary schools work with WEEK-ASSIGNMENTS, secondary schools mostly with MODULES.
In the Czech Republic started in 1996 a new development of the Dalton education based on the Dutch model. In Brno four schools implemented Dalton elements and started to create ASSIGNMENTS as a special part of the curriculum.
International Dalton conferences in Brno CZ, Györszemere HU, Zvolen SK, Lengenfeld DE, Vienna AT, Zwolle NL, Warsaw and in several other cities in Poland, gave impulses for the start of Dalton implementation in many schools in these countries.